Malformasi Anorektal. Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases, which can affect boys and girls, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary. Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the more frequent congenital anomalies encountered in paediatric surgery, with an estimated incidence ranging.

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When performing the colostomy in the newborn, the distal bowel should be irrigated to remove all of the meconium. Management of male and females cases differ. Posterior sagittal approach for the correction of anorectal malformations. Gross abdominal distension, sepsis, or single opening persistent cloaca warrants a diversion colostomy. Maflormasi hemisacrum is always associated with a presacral mass, which is commonly formed of dermoids, teratomas, or anterior meningoceles.

The safest option for a surgeon without extensive experience in anorectal anomalies when faced with a baby with clinical evidence of a rectovestibular fistula is to perform a diverting colostomy.

Anorectal malformations

They occur in approximately 1 in live births. The functional results of the repair of anorectal anomalies seem to have significantly improved since the advent of the posterior sagittal approach. The cloaca itself represents a spectrum and certainly defies the classification “high”, “intermediate”, and “low”. In cases with rectal pouch distal to the anorektzl line, it was possible to divide the fistula and mobilize the rectum via the sacrococcygeal route alone without abdominal exploration.

In this case, during the main repair, the surgeon knows that the rectum will be found only through the abdomen, and a combined posterior sagittal and abdominal or laparoscopic approach is employed. To standardize the methodology for evaluation of outcome of patients with ARM Krickenbeck group came with their classification. Toilet training should be attempted at age 3, and if unsuccessful, a bowel management program aonrektal be initiated.


Voluntarily, the normal individual can relax the striated muscles which allow the rectal contents to migrate down into the highly sensitive area of the anal canal. The most common anomaly in females is a rectovestibular and shows a normal urethra, normal vagina, and another orifice, which is the rectal fistula in the vestibule.

For example, a one-year-old child who has undergone a pull-through for imperforate anus and has one to three bowel movements per day with no soiling in between has a great potential for future fecal continence. The goals of surgical treatment are to achieve bowel control, urinary control, and normal sexual function.

Furthermore, patients may have other spinal anomalies besides tethered cord such as syringomyelia and myelomeningocele. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Reoperations in anorectal malformations.

Complex vaginal mobilizations are often required and frequenly a vaginal replacement with small intestine or colon is necessary. As discussed previously, the surgeon must decide in the newborn period whether the child requires fecal diversion with a colostomy, or can undergo a primary repair procedure. Consequently, the traditional classification of “high”, “intermediate”, and “low” defects renders the results dubious. Patients with a hypodeveloped sacrum are much more likely to be incontinent and a hypodeveloped sacrum is also a good predictor of associated spinal problems such as tethered cord.

In a normal individual, the rectosigmoid remains quiet for variable periods of time one to several daysdepending on specific defecation habits. The main factor that provokes the emptying of the rectosigmoid is a massive involuntary peristaltic contraction helped sometimes by a Valsalva maneuver.


It is the repair of the vagina, the urethra, and the associated urologic defects that represents the main surgical challenge. Anorectal malformations are congenital anomalies that occur in approximately 1 in live births. The radiologic evaluation of a newborn with imperforate anus includes an abdominal ultrasound to evaluate for urologic anomalies.

Anorectal malformations

On the other end of the spectrum, a child who suffers from fecal incontinence passes stool constantly without any evidence of pushing or feeling. In cases with complete pouch colon types I and Anorwktalas adequate length of the normal colon is absent, construction of distal colon by tabularizing coloplasty of the remaining colon has been proposed. See Orphanet J Rare Dis. The voluntary muscles are used to push the rectal contents back up into the rectosigmoid and to hold them if desired, until the appropriate time for evacuation.

Fecal continence Fecal continence depends on three main factors: Fecal continence in patients having undergone posterior sagittal anorectoplasty procedure for a high anorectal malformation improves at adolescence, as constipation disappears.

Anorectal Malformations in Children. Pitfalls in the management of newborn cloacas.

Malformasi Anorektal | Lokananta | Jurnal Kedokteran Meditek

Behind the perineal body is the anus. Associated spinal anomalies The sacrum is the most frequently affected bony structure. Exquisite sensation in normal malflrmasi resides in the anal canal. Advances in the imaging techniques with improvement in knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of ARM cases have refined diagnosis and initial management.