CHAPTER I STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The Work as a Whole Ludus Tonal is is a composite work consisting of twelve three-voice fugues linked by eleven. b – Paul Hindemith – Ludus Tonalis [4], Interlude IV a – J. S. Bach – W. Kl. This study proposes to analyze the main. elements of correlation. Thesis (D. Mus. Arts)–University of Washington, Ludus Tonalis, composed , is one of the best piano works by Hindemith. Although it is not treated as.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The study is concerned with the definition of Hindemith’s tpnalis and how it relates specifically to the Ludus Tonal is.

Therefore, it is directed especially to those readers who seek further insights into performance of the L. All examples and other references will be based on the edition published by B. The article discusses contrapuntal procedures such as harmony, form, counterpoint, and fugal subjects as found in the L. Ian Kemp, Hindemith London: Oxford University Press, This book was used as a reference for stylistic development of Hindemith’s music and as a guide to lludus information.

The overall form of the work and its basic relationship to Hindemith’s theories of harmony are discussed in this chapter. The chapter dealing with aspects of performance relates such techniques as articulation, dynamic nuance, phrasing, and pedaling to the overall stylistic ideal of clarity of line, texture, and form.

The invaluable assistance analyxis my advisor Dr. Winston Kaehler is gratefully acknowledged, as is the technical advice and musical xnalysis of Dr.

Full text of “A Study of Paul Hindemith’s Ludus Tonalis ()”

He became a competent performer on a number of instruments by the age of thirteen and, like Brahms, spent considerable time playing music publicly in order to earn money. He was helped in his higher musical education by a rich tea merchant to whom he later dedicated analysiw first string quartet. InHindemith was appointed concertmaster of the opera house orchestra in Frankfurt-am-Main, and a short time later he was promoted to the position of musical director.

Hindemith may have gained the latter position because of a shortage of musicians in Germany during the First World War. Hindemith was also a member of the Rebner Quartet fromand he founded the Amar Quartet in His association with these groups net only added to his stature as a performer, but also provided a practical outlet for his compositions.

With the death of Reger in and the decreasing interest in the music of Richard Strauss and Hans Pfitzner, the German people Hhe principal source for biographical information in this essay is Ian Kemp’s Hindemjth London: The immediate success of his Quartet No. Hindemith’s early compositions, which were primarily chamber works, showed that he was intent on renewing stylistic and formal traditions; yet his writing was in an unmistakably progressive, contemporary idiom.

His works show a marked influence of Reger and Debussy, and they retain luudus formal designs. Naalysis, he sympathized with and indulged in some of the expressionistic tendencies of the day. These works defy harmonic analysis from a traditional viewpoint.

Hindemith gained a reputation as a provocateur with his three one-act operas from this early experimental and: With Das MarienlebenOpus 27an hour-long song cycle for soprano and piano based on fifteen poems by Rainer Maria Rilke, Hindemith began to develop a more personal style and to 2 The strong public reaction was probably due to the jazz, satirical, and futurist elements in the latter work, as well as to Hindemith’s instructions that the performers be hidden from the audience.

Hindemith, “Ludus Tonalis” (1942)

Some authors consider these songs to be lacking in color or direct emotionalism as understood in nineteenth-century Lieder. The bass line in the piano part is released from traditional functional harmonic duties to assert itself with equal status in the melodic flow of the upper voices. Hindemith’s predilection for diatonic intervals contributes to the relative familiarity of the sound and also to the lack of harmonic function, since there are few leading- 5 note progressions. This lack of traditional leading-note progressions becomes a Hindemith trait in later works.


They display a clarity of line, texture, and form. In Hindemith’s collection of seven concerti collectively entitled K ammermusikthere is a uniformity of mood within each movement and, within the faster sections, an underlying current of hectic, relentless activity.

All of the latter are played with chamber orchestra. The Concerto for OrchestraOpus 38was Hindemith’s first full work for orchestra and, along with the opera, CardillacOpus 39represents a major achievement of the late ‘s.

Two extremely simple elements from the opera have perhaps the most colossal effect on the listener. It is because of the context in which these elements are used, however, that one reacts so intensely to them.

The first is the dead silence when Cardillac murders the Cavalier and the other is the long, soft, major chord E-flat Q which ends the opera. Hindemith has utilized this major chord ending very effectively in the L. T The effect of silence in a relentless context of activity is just as overwhelming as is the finding of a diatonic, legato chord in a dissonant, staccato environment.

Sometime aftera movement began among young German composers to create and make available what was termed Gebrauchsmusik.

Ludus Tonalis – Wikipedia

This title can be misleading if translated directly into English as “utility music. Hindemith did not completely revamp his style in writing for the masses; he merely simplified it. Gebrauchsmusik is distinguished by its lyric, vocal, tonally oriented contours which stem from folk 8 Kemp, p.

It is also more harmonically conceived with less dependence on the contrapuntal invention that prevails in other pieces Hindemith composed between and From that year untilHindemith taught; studied Latin, philosophy, and literature; wrote his own libretti; played numerous instruments; and studied and performed music luduw early periods. AfterHindemith was confronted with the problem of how to explain contemporary music, especially his own, to his students.

This practical need led to his formulation of the basic tenets of 12 what was later to become Unterweisung im Tonsatz These theoretical ideas would exert a powerful influence on succeeding 13 compositions by Hindemith.

This new attitude of the mature Hindemith poses a marked contrast to his iconoclasm of the ‘s. The following excerpt from the autobiography which Hindemith submitted to the second Donaueschingen Festival indicates his early attitude toward traditional musical commentary: As a composer, I have chiefly written pieces I don’t like any more: Associated Music Publishers, I cannot give analyses of my works because I don’t know how to explain anlysis piece of music in a few analydis I would rather write a new one in the time.

For people with ears my things are perfectly easy to. A new, somewhat more introspective style began to emerge in Hindemith’s compositions aftercharacterized by an overall serenity and homogeneity. The major work reflecting this new Hindemith style was the opera, Mathis der Malerfrom which instrumental extracts were later adapted into a symphonic work. Hindemith’s style was well defined in Mathis and the work evinces a certain uniformity of sound that characterizes his works from this and later periods.

The stylistic development of Hindemith’s music was influenced by his attitudes toward music and its social context.

He believed that composers should not only compose but perform, conduct, write about music, and teach in order to be fulfilled as complete 15 musicians. He was also concerned with the more peripheral facets of a composer’s technique and style such as the space large or small in which a piece was to be performed.

Intricate rhythm, melody, or harmony were fine in a small, acoustically bright space, but he felt they must be simplified for large concert halls. The medium of 14 Quoted in Kemp, p.

Hindemith thought the composer should be willing to compromise his ideals in order to reach all levels of cultural enlightenment and, regarding the intellectual capacity of the listener, he writes: It is one thing to write down to the bad instincts of an unrefined listener, and another to satisfy by technical means the just demands of a cultured customer.

Even the loftiest musical spirit grew from a state of simple-mindedness to its superior position. Some people never will be nor want to be millionaires, financially or musically. Are we to lose them or their propensity for music merely because we are unwilling to write music that satisfies their demands?


Hindemith prefaced his revised version of Das Marienleben with an explanation of why he undertook the task. Hindemith was certainly not unique in composing within a fairly strict framework. Hindemith’s critics consider his stylistic uniformity to be a result of his being a “complacent prisoner in his own system,” with the system having a dessieating effect on his creative imagination.

Perhaps Hindemith’s greatest musical contributions were his championing of amateur music, tonal triadic harmony, German folk music, classical forms, and his work as a teacher and practicing musician.

Hindemith had a highly developed sense of musical architecture. Probably the culmination of Hindemith’s highly structured approach to form is Ludus Tonal is. This work is important not only for its technical ingenuity but also as an indication that the theories from The Craftif applied in an artistic context, can and do produce aesthetically pleasing music. Its subtitle notwithstanding, Hindemith conceived this series of pieces as being more than mere studies.

He draws on his total resources of expressive power, and the work is designed with a special regard for the effect that varying degrees 20 of tempi and expression have on the listener.

Ludus Tonal is is the master work of his relatively small output for piano, which includes a suite for pianothree sonatasa piano deetand a sonata for two pianos See also Kemp, p. The work is introduced by a Praeludium and closes with a Post! Each fugue is based on a different tonal centre.

The sequence of tonal centres follows Hindemith’s theories of tonal relationships. In Hindemith’s view, each successive tonal centra is progressivelv more remote in its relationship to the original tone cJ This system provides a systematic sequence for a full range of tonalities and, according to Hindemith, is a demonstration of progressive weakening of tonal 2 orientation.

This series is based on the interval! These compositional techniques help 4 to unify the varied pieces into a single coherent work. In addition to the internal coherence derived from the tonal relationships of “Series One” and the interrelated mirror techniques, Hindemith gains further unity by composing some of the interludes so that they lead from the key of the preceding fugue to that of the succeeding one.

A complete performance of the entire cyclical work is, therefore, artistically satisfying.

The unifying elements do not preclude the performance of 3 Ibid qnalysis, p. Kemp feels there is a definite symmetrical structure evident in the whole work.

Hindemith felt that the ear could not adequately hear more than three voices in a polyphonic texture. In some instances, however, because of their modulatory nature, the interludes may not sound complete when played alone.

The Praeludium, which begins in a free, improvisatory style, starts by centring around C and moves to F-sharp, while the Postludium begins in F-sharp the key of the preceding fugue and modulates back to C. The entire Postludium is the retrograde inversion of the Praeludium. The Praeludium is in three major sections, the first and last being fourteen analsyis in length ludys the middle, ariosobeing eighteen measures long. This proportional length of sections at least on paper is possibly indicative of Hindemith’s preoccupation with formal symmetry and balance.

A long, freely conceived transitional bar between the arioso and the final slow section is similar in style to the first three anaylsis bars of the first section. Melodic material introduced in measures serves as the basis for a basso ostinato that continues for seven measures meas.

The interludes of the L. While some of the interludes Nos.

There is very little imitative development of motives in any of the interludes which probably represents a deliberate attempt by Hindemith to avovd overdoing the characteristic texture of the writing.